Friday, May 30, 2014

Baltimore, Maryland Car Accident Attorney | The Baltimore City Police Department's No-Pursuit Policy

12-year-old Shanizya Taft was killed in a car crash on Tuesday night in east Baltimore on East Preston Street near Aisquith Street. The driver, a murder suspect in the shooting and killing of a 15-year-old boy on Memorial Day on S. Mount Street, ran a red light and slammed into a white minivan carrying Shanizya Taft, her 4-year-old sister, and mother. Shanizya's mother and 4-year-old sister were taken to a local hospital for treatment. The mother was still in the hospital late Wednesday, while the 4-year-old had been released.

Plain clothes officers pursued the driver after spotting him nearby, but police contend there was no chase. "Our officers were initially behind this vehicle. They did initially try to stop it," said Lt. Eric Kowalczyk, Baltimore City Police. "After a short period of time, they lost sight of the vehicle. And then it was one of our patrol officers who came across the accident a short time after that."

The Baltimore Police Department's policy prohibits officers from chasing suspects in vehicles except under "exigent circumstances," such as when officers believe that failing to pursue could lead to injury or death. Before police can engage in a high-speed pursuit, agency policy says, officials must consider whether the hazards to pedestrians and other drivers are outweighed by the importance of catching the suspect. Officers are supposed to communicate with supervisors before they begin a pursuit, remain in contact, and use their lights and siren.

One reason for this is to prevent police officers from becoming involved in a traffic crash--whether with the suspect or innocent bystanders. Geoffrey Alpert, a University of South Carolina professor of criminology, was quoted in USA Today saying that approximately 35% - 40% of police chases end in traffic crashes. Alpert also stated that while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration says that police pursuits result in about 360 deaths a year, that number is likely 3 to 4 times higher.

In 2011, the mother of a man who died in a Baltimore motorcycle accident that occurred during a high-speed police chase filed a $40 million wrongful death lawsuit against the city of Baltimore and the police officer involved.

In September of 2013, Baltimore police conducted a criminal investigation into whether officers followed orders to end their pursuit of a sedan before it was involved in a fatal crash that killed three people.

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Thursday, May 29, 2014

Ocean City, Maryland Criminal Defense Attorney | Maryland Assault Laws

In Maryland, an "assault" encompasses the crimes of assault, battery, and assault and battery. Assault is the attempted touching of another person, without that person's consent, and includes the act of placing someone in fear of an intentional touching. Battery is the unlawful and offensive touching of another person without that person's consent.

In Maryland, first degree assault is defined as causing serious physical injury to another individual. According to Maryland Code § 3-201(d), "serious physical injury" is defined as any physical injury that causes protracted or permanent impairment or loss of a bodily organ or member, disfigurement, or a substantial risk of death. In addition, any assault involving a firearm or other dangerous weapon is considered first degree assault. Under Maryland Code § 3-202, a firearm can be defined as a handgun, rifle, shotgun, antique firearm, short-barreled shotgun or short-barreled rifle; and assault pistol; a machine gun; or a regulated firearm.

The penalties associated with a first degree assault conviction in Maryland can include up to 25 years in prison, as well as a felony conviction reflected on your permanent record. Other penalties could include probation, house arrest, restraining orders, driving restrictions and more, depending on the circumstances of your case.

Second degree assault is defined as causing physical injury, or any impairment of physical condition, to another person. Any unwanted physical contact can be considered assault, even if it doesn't ultimately cause injury. Under Maryland Code § 3-203 , a person who is convicted of second degree assault is subject to imprisonment of up to 10 years and/or a maximum fine of $2,500. However, anyone that commits second-degree assault on a government agent, such as a law enforcement officer, is guilty of a felony, subject to imprisonment of up to 10 years and/or a maximum fine of $5,000.

Defenses to assault include self-defense and lack of evidence. The penalties associated with both first and second degree assault in Maryland could alter the course of your life forever. The experienced Maryland assault lawyers at Portner & Shure with a solid track record of success will examine each aspect of your case to build a solid defense that leads to our acquittal or a reduction in your charges and/or penalties.

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Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Ocean City, Maryland Criminal Defense Attorney | DUI vs. DWI in Maryland

With temperatures rising and Memorial Day weekend having marked the unofficial start of summer, many residents of the Baltimore and Washington D.C. metro area will be heading to Ocean City, Maryland during the week and weekends. Whether grilling at a beach house or eating at a restaurant on the boardwalk, it's likely many people will be relaxing and kicking back with a drink or two. People have a tendency to drink more than usual in a relaxed, vacation environment and this could lead to the poor decision of getting behind the wheel. In 2011, over 16,000 arrests were made for driving under the influence in Maryland. It takes only one bad choice to completely change your life.

In Maryland, if you are pulled over for drinking or driving, you could possibly be charged with two types of offenses--a DUI (driving under the influence) or a DWI (driving while intoxicated). If you are charged with a DUI in Maryland, it means, among other things, that your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) posted at a level of .08% of higher. You could face up to one year in jail, and 12 points are automatically marked against your driving record, which results in an instant revocation of your license for six months. The monetary fine for a first offense DUI is $1,000. A second offense DUI could result in jail for up to two years with a mandatory minimum of five days. Your license will be revoked for one year and suspended for one year, there will be a 3-12 months ignition interlock period, 12 points will be marked on your driving record, and there is a $2,000 fine.

You can be charged for a DWI if your BAC is .07. For a first offense DWI, your license is suspended for 60 days with eight points are marked against your driving record. You could face up to 60 days in jail and the monetary fine is $500. For a second offense DWI, your license is suspended for up to 120 days, eight points are marked against your driving record, you could face up to a year in jail, and the monetary fine is $500.

Traffic related prosecutions, particularly DUIs and DUI-fatalities, are among the most complicated cases to handle. The highly experienced attorneys at Portner & Shure can begin working on your DUI or DWI case immediately to ensure your rights are protected. The committed attorneys will work tireless to build a strong defense and find weaknesses in the prosecution's case.

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Friday, May 23, 2014

Maryland Criminal Defense Attorney | Road Rage in Maryland

We have all read or seen on the news stories of drivers getting involved in physical altercations due to aggressive driving- or what is commonly referred to as road rage. Road rage can lead to altercations, assaults, and collisions, which can then result in injuries and even deaths.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) states that road rage "involves a criminal act of violence, whereas aggressive driving can include tailgating, speeding and running red lights." The number of deaths related to road rage is difficult to track, but NHTSA estimates that aggressive driving accounts for about one-third of all crashes and about two-thirds of the resulting fatalities.

Portner & Shure recently represented a client who was involved in a road rage incident. He was driving on I-270 southbound in Gaithersburg, Maryland and became involved in an altercation with another driver on the road. The two men pulled over on the shoulder and exchanged verbal insults, which then led to a physical fight on the side of the highway. Our client fractured the other driver's nose and head butted him, resulting in broken teeth. 

Subsequently, our client was charged with second-degree assault, reckless driving, negligent driving, and following a vehicle too closely by the state of Maryland. In Maryland, second-degree assault is defined as causing someone physical injury. If convicted, you can face up to 10 years in prison and a $2,500 fine. In addition, our client was facing a civil lawsuit from the other driver for medical bills and surgery, which amounted to over $27,000. The attorneys at Portner & Shure were able to successfully work with the state and the opposing attorney to resolve the issue by negotiating a much lower pre-trial settlement.

While we may have successfully helped our client resolve both the serious criminal and civil charges he was facing, here, there was no real winner. Both men suffered physical and monetary losses due to a situation which could have been avoided. If someone is tailgating you and acting aggressively, do not make eye contact or retaliate in any sort of way. It's not worth it. If a problem persists, call for help on your cell phone and drive to a police station for help.

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Thursday, May 22, 2014

Ocean City, Maryland Personal Injury Attorney | Memorial Day Weekend Traffic Update

Heading to Ocean City, Maryland from the Washington D.C. metro area between 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. on Friday will add about three hours to the trip, according to travel data company Inrix. Inrix stated people who are headed south toward Richmond, Virginia from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. on Friday will see their travel time double. According to AAA, 907,750 people plan to leave the region for Memorial Day weekend. Approximately 67,000 people will fly, with the remaining traveling by bus, rail, or boat.

According to the National Safety Council, it is estimated that 382 people will die in traffic crashes nationwide and 40,900 who survive crashes will end up in emergency rooms this Memorial holiday weekend. AAA Mid-Atlantic expects to come to the rescue of more than 30,000 stranded motorists.

The Maryland State Highway Administration suggests you use the free travel service hotline 5-1-1-, which monitors traffic conditions.

Portner & Shure wishes you a safe and happy Memorial Day weekend.

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Tuesday, May 20, 2014

Maryland Personal Injury Attorney | Theories of Liability for Dog Bites in Maryland

Under Maryland common law, an owner or keeper of a dog may be responsible for an injurious act of the dog under two alternate theories of liability: (1) negligence; or (2) strict liability arising from the defendant's knowledge of the dog's propensity to cause harm. Under a negligence claim, an owner of an animal will be liable for damage proximately caused by the animal if the owner exercised ineffective control of the animal in a situation where it would reasonably be expected that injury could occur. In determining the necessary degree of control, the past behavior of the animal and the foreseeability of the injuries should be considered.

Under common law, absent a showing of negligence, a defendant is not liable for an injury caused by a dog unless, at the time of the attack, the defendant knew or had reason to know of the dog's vicious tendencies or propensities (scienter). Though commonly referred to as the "one bite rule," a plaintiff seeking to recover damages for injuries caused by a dog is not required to prove that the dog actually bit someone prior to the attack on the plaintiff. The defendant's knowledge of the dog's vicious propensity "need only be such as to put him on his guard, and to require him a an ordinary prudent person to anticipate the act or conduct of the dog resulting in the injury for which the owner is sought to be held liable." On a showing of knowledge of the dog's vicious propensity, a plaintiff may recover under the common law on the basis of strict liability. 

Early last month, Governor Martin O'Malley signed legislation that lifted the "inherently dangerous" legal stigma from the pit bulls of Maryland. The measure negated the 2012 Court of Appeals ruling in Tracey v. Solesky that pit bulls are "inherently dangerous" and must be held to a stricter liability standard than other dogs. The Court acknowledged that it was imposing "breed-specific liability standards," stating:

"We are modifying the Maryland common law of liability as it relates to attacks by pit bull and cross-bred pit bull dogs against humans. With the standard we establish today (which is to be applied in this case on remand), when an owner or a landlord is proven to have knowledge of the presence of a pit bull or cross-bred pit bull (as both the owner and landlord did in this case) or should have had such knowledge, a prima facie case is established. It is not necessary that the landlord (or the pit bull's owner) have actual knowledge that the specific pit bull involved is dangerous. Because of its aggressive and vicious nature and its capability to inflict serious and sometimes fatal injuries, pit bulls and cross-bred pit bulls are inherently dangerous."

On August 21, 2012, the court reconsidered its decision and limited its application to purebred pit bulls. Animal advocates across the nation objected to the court's delicious to treat pit bulls differently.

The legislation passed by the legislature this year - after failed attempts to reach agreement between the Senate and House in 2012 and 2013 - applies the same legal standard to all dogs. It makes all dogs, regardless of breed, subject to the same liability standard. It shifts the burden of proof to the owner to show that there was no previous reason to believe a dog was dangerous. Previously, the burden had been on the bite victim to prove that the owner knew or should have known that the dog had vicious or dangerous propensities. The legislation also makes it more difficult for victims of pit bull attacks to sue landlords. The court decision in Tracey v. Solesky had opened the door to such suits, and animal advocates contended that people were being forced to choose between losing their homes and giving up their pets.

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Monday, May 19, 2014

Baltimore, Maryland Traffic Ticket Attorney | Driving Without a License in Maryland

What is driving without a license in Maryland?

Driving without a license in Maryland can be distinguished from "failure to display a license." If you have a valid driver's license but simply failed to have it on your person when pulled over, you could only be charged with "failure to display a license." However, if you are charged with "driving without a license" in Maryland, it means as a resident of Maryland or as a resident of another state you do not currently have a valid driver's license.

What is the punishment for driving without a license in Maryland?

Driving or attempting to drive without a license in Maryland carries a maximum penalty of 60 days in jail and/or a $500 fine. A conviction for driving without a license will result in 5 points being assessed. The charge carries more time for subsequent offenders.

Can I just pay a fine online if I've been charged with driving without a license in Maryland?

Because driving without a license is an incarcerable offense, meaning that you can serve jail time if you are found guilty of the charges, it is what is referred to as a "must appear" citation. That means that this citation cannot be disposed of just by paying a fine. A driver that receives a ticket for driving without a license must go to court to resolve their case.

Can I apply for a driver's license if I am an illegal resident in Maryland?

Illegal immigrants in Maryland are now able to obtain what is called a "second-tier" driver's license if they meet certain requirements. These second-tier driver's licenses allow holders to drive on Maryland roads, register their cars, and obtain insurance. However, these licenses are not recognized by federal agencies and cannot be used for identification purposes. The words "Not Acceptable for Federal Purposes" is written across the top of the license.

If I am an illegal immigrant in Maryland, how do I apply for a second-tier driver's license?

In order for an illegal immigrant to obtain a second-tier license, an applicant must bring documentation to their driver's license appointment that proves three things: identification, Maryland residency and that the applicant has paid taxes in Maryland or is a dependent of someone who has paid taxes in Maryland for the past two years. 

To prove identification, an applicant can submit a passport. If the applicant is unable to provide a passport, the applicant can submit two of the following, one of which should contain a photograph not more than 8 years old:

  • Foreign driver's license

  • Birth certificate

  • Identification card

  • Employment authorization document

To prove Maryland residency, an applicant needs at least two of the following:

  • Maryland vehicle registration or car title

  • Utility bill

  • Bank statement

  • Life insurance card

  • Property tax bill or receipt

  • Proof of home ownership

  • Mail from a government agency

  • Credit card bill

  • Cancelled check

To prove the applicant has paid taxes in Maryland or is a dependent of someone who has paid taxes in Maryland for the past two years, an applicant must provide two years of Maryland tax forms approved by the comptroller.

Should I consult an attorney if I have been charged with driving without a license in Maryland?

If you have been convinced to driving without a license, it is in your best interest to immediately consult an attorney. The highly-skilled, experienced attorneys at Portner & Shure will work diligently to obtain the most favorable results possible for you. For a free consultation, contact a Baltimore traffic ticket attorney at Portner & Shure.

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Friday, May 16, 2014

Maryland Personal Injury Attorney | Statute of Limitations in a Personal Injury Lawsuit in Maryland

So you've been involved in an auto collision and sustained injuries but you don't have the time to schedule a doctor's appointment and handle the situation. Or maybe you have the time but you're overwhelmed because there seems to be a mountain of paperwork to read and your medical bills are getting uncomfortably high. Perhaps you've been meaning to consult an attorney but between your career and real life, you can't seem to make time. These are common situations for our clients who have been involved in auto collisions. However, it is important to understand that by delaying, you could be legally unable to file a claim and receive damages, even if you were the victim.

"Statutes of limitations" are laws that set time limits on how long you have to file a civil or criminal lawsuit. These time limits depend on the legal claim or crime involved in the case, and vary from state to state. For example, in some states you may have three years to file a personal injury lawsuit after you were hurt in car accident, but in other states you may have two years. As a general rule, the time period begins to run on the date your claim arises or "accrues," like the day of the car accident.

The statute of limitations that applies to most tort cases in Maryland is MD Cts. & Jud. Proc. § 5-101, which provides that "a civil action at law shall be filed within three years from the date it "accrues" unless another provision of the Code provides a different period of time within which an action shall be commenced." Deciding when a cause of action accrues is often a matter of complex legal interpretation. It is a good idea to consult a lawyer to help you figure out when your cause of action accrued. Remember, once the statute of limitations has expired or "run," you can no longer file a lawsuit.

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Thursday, May 15, 2014

Maryland Criminal Defense Attorney | Maryland Aggressive Driving Laws

The Washington D.C. metro area has been ranked the nation's worst for traffic congestion according to the Texas Transportation Institute's "Urban Mobility Report" which tracks time and fuel commuters lose in traffic delays. The study states the average Washington D.C. commuter spends 67 hours a year sitting in traffic. That is the equivalent of approximately two full work weeks spent behind the wheel each year.

The number of commuters during rush hour and peak times creates significant delays for drivers in the region. For example, when heading from Richmond, Virginia to Virginia Beach, drivers are expected to experience at least 1 hour and 20 minutes of delay due to traffic during peak times. When heading to Ocean City, MD, drivers are expected to experience at least 2 hours and 40 minutes of delay during peak times.

Washington D.C. metro area drivers are used to feeling frustration, impatience and anger when stuck in traffic congestion. Oftentimes, these feelings of irritability can lead to pushy behavior in a vehicle and aggressive driving. According to the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration, aggressive driving occurs when an individual commits a combination of moving traffic offenses that endangers other people or property. Behaviors include a variety of dangerous driving maneuvers such as speeding, tailgating, running red light and stop signs, improper passing, and weaving.

Maryland motorists face a penalty of $355 for aggressive driving when they commit at least three of these traffic offenses in close proximity: speeding, disregarding a traffic sign or light, passing another vehicle unsafely, passing another vehicle on the right, driving improperly on a laned road, following another vehicle too closely, and failing to yield the right of way.

Defending against a charge of aggressive driving will often involve creating a defense against the underlying charges. The experienced attorneys at Portner & Shure have represented numerous clients facing aggressive driving charges. They have successfully convinced the court that the state has failed to meet the burden of proof as the police officer has not presented sufficient evidence. If you are facing an aggressive driving charge, you should consult an attorney who is experienced in dealing with traffic violations to help you prevent paying high fines and potential increases in your insurance premium.

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Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Columbia, MD Auto Accident Attorney | What You Should Not Do in the Event of an Auto Accident

If you've ever taken the time to look at the back of your insurance card, you'll see that the first tip most, if not all, insurance companies give you in the event of a car accident is "Do not admit fault." Some insurance companies use the word "never." This is absolutely crucial as anything you say can and will most likely be used against you. Do not ever admit fault. Even if it is your fault, do not come out and say it. Key phrases to avoid are, "I'm sorry," "I didn't see you there," and "I didn't mean to..." You should absolutely check to make sure no one is injured but do not apologize for the accident even if you think it was your fault. Oftentimes, it's not.

 Provide just the facts to the police officer who arrives on the scene. Stick to the facts and avoid giving any specific details. Ask the police officer who investigates the traffic scene to provide you with a business card and with the incident number, so that you can obtain an accident report. Most officers will provide this information to you, even if you don't ask.

 Call your own insurance company and report the car accident immediately. Your auto liability insurance policy requires that you do this. Just as you did with the officer on scene, provide only the facts of the accident to the insurance company representative. This includes the date, time, and location of the accident along with the names and addresses of all parties involved. Avoid going in depth and giving details about how or why you think the accident occurred. This is not to say that you should lie to your insurance company. That would be fraud. Just stick to the facts. Do not give a recorded statement, even to your own insurance company, as it is important to understand that you should consult an auto accident attorney before discussing anything related to "fault." An experienced attorney will take control of the case and the release of information.

Accidents are never an enjoyable experience. It's easy to get overwhelmed and hyper excited in such situations. Regardless, what you say and what you do immediately after an accident will impact your claim and your premium. 

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Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Maryland Auto Accident Attorney | Maryland Cell Phone, Texting, and Driving Laws

Can I send a text message or talk on my handheld cell phone while driving in Maryland?

No. Maryland bans cell phone use while driving without a hands-free device. This means you cannot have the phone in your hands while driving. Instead, drivers must use a hands-free device, like a Bluetooth headset, if they wish to talk on their cell phone.

Can law enforcement officers pull me over for talking or texting on my cell phone?

Yes. In Maryland, the use of handheld cell phones (includes both talking and texting) while driving is a primary offense. This means law enforcement officers in Maryland have the authority to pull drivers over for talking and/or texting on a cell phone without using a hands-free device. The offense was previously a secondary offense, requiring officers to pull you over for something else before citing drivers for using their phones improperly.

What are the fines associated with getting pulled over while using a cell phone while driving in Maryland?

A first-time offender will be fined $83, including court costs. A second offense will cost $140 and increase to $160 for a third and subsequent offense. In addition, if the violation contributed to an accident, 3 points will also be assessed in addition to the fine.

What if I need to use my cell phone for an emergency?

Drivers can use their phones to call or text 911 in the event of an emergency. Maryland law continues to ban the use of cell phones while driving for school bus drivers, those under 18 and adults who hold learner's permits.

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Monday, May 12, 2014

Maryland Criminal Defense Attorney | Impaired Driving Crashes

What happens if a drunk driver kills someone? Impaired driving is one of Maryland's highest priority traffic safety issues. If you are involved in an impaired driving accident, you could be charged with a number of different criminal offenses, including but limited to, manslaughter by vehicle in violation of Md. Crim. L. Code Ann. § 2-209, homicide by motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol in violation of Md. Crim. L. Code Ann. § 2-503, homicide by motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol in violation of Md. Crim. L. Code Ann. § 2-504, driving a vehicle on a highway in excess of the posted miles per hours limit, and driving a motor vehicle in wanton and willful disregard for the safety of personal and property in violation of Md. Trans. Code Ann. § 21-901.1A. When faced with such high-stakes charges, it is important you enlist an assertive attorney from Portner & Shure to fight for you.

Maryland's definition of an impaired driving crash is at least one of the drivers involved in the crash was reported to be under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs. Impairment is determined through the driver condition, blood alcohol content, substance use and contributing factor fields on the crash report.

According to Maryland's 2014 Highway Safety Plan, over the past five years, an average of 8,216 impaired driving crashes has occurred annually on Maryland's roadways. On average, 185 people have lost their lives and 4,352 were injured each year. This loss of life represents approximately one-third of all of Maryland's traffic fatalities. The highest number of impaired driving crashes occurs among male drivers between the ages of 21 and 49. The highest concentration of impaired driving crashes is recorded in the Baltimore/Washington metropolitan area, which includes Baltimore City, central Maryland, and Washington D.C. 5 jurisdictions--Prince George's, Baltimore, Montgomery, and Anne Arundel counties and Baltimore City-account for more than 60 percent of all impaired driving crashes statewide.

Traffic related prosecutions, particularly DUIs and DUI-fatalities, are among the most complicated cases to handle. The highly experienced attorneys at Portner & Shure can begin working on your vehicular homicide case immediately to ensure your rights are protected. The committed attorneys will work tirelessly to build a strong defense and find weaknesses in the prosecution's case. 

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Thursday, May 8, 2014

Columbia, Maryland Auto Accident Attorneys Revamp Their Website

In order to provide a more user-centric experience to its visitors, Portner & Shure, one of Maryland's highest ranked law firms, has launched a website overhaul by making improvements to its core website's navigation and content design. Read more...

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Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Personal Injury Attorneys Have a New Column


Our firm is now writing for Korea Daily ( and the Korean Biz Journal (!

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Tuesday, May 6, 2014

In Rockville, Maryland, Low Impact Does Not Mean Low Recovery

GEICO Insurance company generally takes the position that if a car has low or no property damage the recovery should be denied or limited to approximately $1,000.00. Fortunately, most District Court Judges disagree with this analysis. As a result, when this occurs, Portner & Shure has a history of filing lawsuits and ultimately obtaining excellent recoveries.

Insurance companies track a law firm's record in Court. As a result of our past track record we were able to settle a case for two Chinese speaking clients in low impact automobile accident cases without filing suit. In this case, that settled in April of 2014, the property damage was approximately $300.00. Our clients spoke only Chinese and saw only an internist and Chinese speaking acupuncturist. Bot sustained only soft tissue injuries. Arguably, therefore, neither the clients nor the doctors would make good witnesses. Nevertheless, the cases were settled for $20,000.00 each by our firm without having to file a lawsuit.

Past track records, in other words, dictate current results. If you are pursuing a low impact accident, or speak only Chinese, Korean or Spanish, don't be intimidated. However, choose a lawyer with a proven track record in court.

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Thursday, May 1, 2014

Maryland Auto Accident Attorney| Difference Between State and Federal Law

Many of our clients ask us to explain the distinction between Federal laws and state laws. State laws only apply to those who are within that state. Local laws are for counties, towns, and municipalities. This is different from Federal laws, which apply to everyone within the United States. Federal and state laws are separated by the areas of law in which they cover.

Federal laws include:

  • Immigration Law

  • Bankruptcy Law

  • Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Laws

  • Civil Rights Laws (Laws that protect against discrimination based on race, age, gender, and disability)

  • Patent and Copyright Laws

  • Federal Criminal Laws (This includes laws such as tax evasion, kidnapping, counterfeiting, immigration offenses, and certain drug-related offenses)

State laws include:

  • Criminal Matters

  • Divorce and Family Law

  • Welfare and Public Assistance

  • Wills and Estates Law

  • Real Estate and Real Property Law

  • Business Law

  • Personal Injury and Negligence Law

  • Workers' Compensation Law

Local Laws include:

  • Rent Laws

  • Zoning Laws

  • Local Safety Laws

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